Kasus och genus – sammanfattning


We have two numbers: singular and plural.

Several nouns occur only or mostly in the singular. This is especially the case with material nouns and abstract nouns, e.g. molvuris/muluvi/molovos= tin, lead,pewter, xandž/xandža =itch; xarula/xaruvela=scratch, comb; čik/mel= dirt; čiken/khoni=tallow, baxt =fortune; bokh =hunger, lindri=sleep; xoli= anger.

A plural of certain material nouns can however be conceived as having the secondary sense ‘sorts of -‘, ‘kinds of -‘, e.g. “ felitiko=various, all sorts of; dujfeliko=of two kinds, of two sorts; mindenfeliko = of all kinds, of all sorts; mindenfelitiko=various, several,various (sorts of) things,difference; sa-prek = mod all sorts (of), all kinds (of); beri = object or thing, gadget, any tiny object , material , track left by skis; svašto = (of) anything (to do), all kinds (to do), all sorts of things (to do), any sort of things (to do); svakojake=all kinds of; rišureja/rajzureja sorts of rice;  thuvaja/thuvjano = tobacco, thuvjako thuu = tobacco smoke, thyölesko/thuvalesko = of the tobacco, thyöliako/ thyöleja =sorts of tobacco; vare = various kinds of flour, varo/aro/ are= sorts of flour;

Certain abstract nouns on the verge of being concrete also form a plural, e.g. tuga/briga =problem, sorrow, despair, melancholy, troubles, worries, misfortune, pharibe/nekazo=bad luck, sorrow, grief,unlucky fellow; tuginel/ pharo mande= sorrow, be grieved; dukkha=pains, aches; dariko/ groaza  =fright, dread frights; groza=horror;

Collective nouns can usually form a plural, e.g. o phuro starelas but mačhe= the old man caught many fish; but makhija/cincarija/komaria= many midges; sa el alatos/kreature sas akana leske =all the cattle were now his.

Certain nouns occur only or mostly in the plural, e.g lim = snot ,(with running nose); lima= mucus, slobber; saľa/saľazel=slobber, saliva;šlima/ sajalija/ saleja= mucus, slobber

xoluja/xolova/xoleva = trousers, pants; morčuno holova=leather trousers

pantaloneja/pantalone=panties, under pants

gulibe/gudlipe=sweets; frukti/ heldos= fruit; četlako-pani= dirty wash-water; mujako-čhungaripa/mosko-čhungaripen =secretion in the mouth (when feeling sick); plouvi/silavja=tongs, nippers, pliers, forceps; pexteja/pextija= jellied; marmelados =marmalade; pirostija/ dreifusa/trajfusa = tripod, tripod (for cooking); Pinstako-dives/Rusalijesko-dives=Whitsuntide, Whitsun; šefa/ šelja =bran,chaff; gada/trandža/kola=clothes; jakhengiere/ čenge- glaži =spectacles; čeribosko-stedos/kuxnja=kitchen; bero/panjako-bero=boat, ship; dumo=back, vertebra ; khamesko-upre-džaljipa=sunrise.

Some nouns; have in the plural a meaning somewhat different from that in the singular, e.g. kouvalo/kovlo-kokalos=cartilage, gristle; kurčos/ gerčo= cartilage,cramp; kurčorja/ gerčorja = plur. cramp; šil=cold, plur. šila=ague, fever, frost ,shivering fit, the shivers.; pre-džala/nakhela=pass, cross, pass by, cross, go over, get through, get by;

The noun; pani = water, sea, river etc. has also the secondary meaning ‘cold sweat’ in the plural, e.g. phirijom/tradjom perdal trin panija,  (džejom/nakhajom trin panija)= I travelled across three waters; el panija line ma = I broke out in a cold sweat (the water took me);

The words čhel/(phukja/bubuja/bugina)=small-pox pustule; phukni/ čuknida/kopriva= nettle-rash, pimple, wart, water bliste, scab, rash; čhelja/čheľa =measle-rash, are in the singular when they indicate the diseases ‘small-pox’, ‘urticaria’, ‘measles’, e.g. e phuknija/čhelja džala/phirela and o gav = there is small-pox in the village;nasvalja/nasvajli and e phuknija/ čhelja, (joi phuknarela)=she was afflicted with nettle-rash.

Here too may be included phuknija pimple, boil, abscess, rash etc., e.g. e phuknija ačela ape sa lesko trupos, (e phukni lijas les) =he got pustules all over the body. But: lako muj hin/sas perdo phuknija/ čhelja! = her face is (was) covered with pock-marks. The words for ‘hair’- bal, ‘beard’- čhor, ‘coal’ – angar, ‘straw’ – phusa (sometimes) ‘grass’ are plural when reference is not made to one single strand of hair, hair of the beard, piece of coal, piece of straw, piece of grass, e.g. kresjila/ krecola peske bal =she curls her hair; sas les lungo/dugo čhor = he had a long beard; mineraľno/barune angar =mineral coal; jon sovenas ape el phusa= they slept on (the) traw; apo el  čara=on the grass; sas la jekh bal savo barjol  apo peski phukni =she had a hair growing from the wart; jekh phusa hin pe tute= you have a straw on you.


The Roma language has the following cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, prepositional, instrumental, and ablative. The genitive, dative, prepositional, instrumental and ablative are formed by adding special case-affixes to the oblique stem, which is identical in form with the accusative of the nouns which designate animate beings. The genitive is in reality an adjective agreeing with its noun in gender and number but is generally included among the cases in respect to its formation from the oblique stem.

Besides these case-forms there are two cases preserved in a few traditional forms with adverbial meaning, viz. the singular ablative in -al and the singular locative in -e, (or sometimes -i)


Nominative singular

The nominative singular is identical with (a) the stem of the noun or (b) the stem of the noun with a masculine or feminine termination or suffix.

Note, however:  the dropping of the final consonant of the stem in the nominative singular of nouns e.g. gras= horse, grast-; bax =luck, baxt-;

the elision of the -v- of the stem in the nominative singular of Del God, Devl– and the difference between the nominative singular forms muter urine, džuklo/džukel=dog and riat= night and the forms mutr-, džukl- and riat(i)- on which the nominative plural of muter and rejat and the oblique cases of muter, džukel and rejat are built.]

Nominative plural

A.Formation of the nominative plural of masculine substantives.

1. Nouns in -o take -e in the plural, with loss of the masculine termination, e.g. raklo =(non-Gipsy) boy, plur. rakle. In this group are included a few masculine nouns in -v e.g. čhavo/čhav = Roma child, plur. čhave.

The majority of masculine nouns ending in a consonant or (consonantal) –i, -j, take -a in the plural, e.g. sap=snake, plur. sapa; šošoj hare, plur. šošoja. In this group is included one single word in -i, viz. i =heart,mind, stomach, soul etc. plur. a. Note the contracted forms of the plural within the groups e.g. kuči= mug, plur. kučija; rašaj/rašal priest, plur. rašaja/rašaija.

Some masculine nouns ending in a consonant remain unchanged in the plural, e.g. manuš=human being, plur. manuš/manuša.  In this group is included one single word in (consonantal) -i,-j, viz. raj= gentleman, plur. raj/raja nouns with consonantal endings have thus the same form in plural and in singular.

A great part of the nouns in -o exchange this termination for (-urja,-ureja, urija, -urja, -uri) in the nominative plural. -uri, –urja,- ureja,urija, -urja

Note: The forms in (-uri, –urja,-ureja,urija, -urja,  ija/jla/dija) between or among lovara and kaldarash speaking has/have presumably arisen from the Rumanian plural forms ending in -uri [here written -uri; the -i , Rum. –i, marks that r is palatalized and thus has the timbre of i]; after -uri an -a has been added, possibly borrowed from Modern Greek, -urj-a, -uri-j-a becoming –ureä, e.g. vodro/pato bed, plur. vodureä/patureä, (vodurij-a/paturi-a).

The ending –urea, -urja, -urija has been applied not only to Rumanian neuter (‘ambigen’ or ‘eterogen’) nouns, but also to Rumanian masculine nouns and even to loan-words from other languages than the Rumanian, e.g. akrubato = acrobat, plur.akrubatureä/akrubaturija (Rum. akrubat m.); groza= thunderstorm, gromos/ devleski-vrema =thunder,

plur. gromureä/gromurija; trenso=snaffle, plur. trensureä/trensurija (Germ. Trense); alifanto=elephant, plur. alifantureä/alifanturija (Hung. elefant) etc.

A few nouns in -o of Modern Greek origin take -a in the plural, with loss of the termination of the nominative, e.g. kokalos=bone (in the body), plur. kokala; savato=Saturday, plur. savata (alongside with savatoja or savaturija). The termination -a is here taken directly from the Modern Greek, there being the usual ending of neuter nouns.

Certain nouns in -o, seem to have developed their plural forms from Rumanian plural forms ending in a palatalized consonant; to these forms an -a has been added, possibly borrowed from Modern Greek, Also a few nouns of not Rumanian origin have developed their plurals in the same way. By the formation of Gipsy plurals of this type (a) the final consonants of the stem n, g and k have become i, and č, tš before -a, e.g. čokanos/ tšokanos =hammer, plur. čokanja/tšokanja ( tšokanj-a); gras/khuros= stallion, foal plur. grasija/grasa ( khurij-a); and (b) the termination -a after certain final consonants of the stem, as l,-lo, r, has become  -eä, -eja, eija, ija)

e.g. andželo =angel, plur. andželeä/andžurija/andžurjos (andželij-a); duxo/phurdi=breath, plur. duxoja/phurdija/( duxanij-a). There are, however, no indications of an original weakening of certain consonants, as r, š, z, ča e.g. bašno=cock, plur. bašna/bašne; glažos/staklo/ poharo drinking-glass, glass (material) plur. glaža/stakli/stakla/glažija/staklij; firizos/žogos   =saw, plur. firisča/firizurja/žoga

Certain other nouns in –o,-i  take –i, -ča,-a-e in the plural, with loss of the termination of the nominative, e.g. česaro/česari=emperor plur. česarči/ česarča; čhavo=boy, plur. čhave ;          

In this group is included one single word which takes (consonantal)

-i in the plural, viz. anglos/čeni = ear-ring, trinket, ornament, pendant plur. anglurija/čena/čenija

The plural termination -i of the roma language, which once was syllabic but now is silent or reduced and has given a palatalized articulation to the preceding consonant, which has thus the timbre of i, By the influence of the following -i includingthe final consonants of the·stem t and k example are often changed to –ts and –e,tš, -č,-čh e.g. čohani/čohano/drabareli/drabarno =sorcery, sorcerer, witcherywitch, female fortune teller, enchantment, charm, spell, witchcraft,                                        plur. čohanči/ čohane/čohanča/drabarja/drabara= magic, spell, witchcraft

afiša/plakato =poster, billboard plur. afiši/afiči/plakači/plakatši; and the nearest preceding vowels a, e e.g. narto/kuseno=male cousin, plur. narti/kuseni.

Note; (sonakune-love/somnakune love) dželta/dukato/cekino=gold coin, plur. dželti/dukati/cekini.

No fixed rules can be given for the use of the endings uri, -urja,- ureja,urija, -urja,-a,-eä respectively -i, added to nouns which in the singular nominative terminate in -o. Note however that plurals in -i occur especially after stems in t, e.g. punto/funto=pound, plur. punči/funtši/funturja; anglutno/angluno-dad/phurane-dad =ancestors, forefathers plur.

anglutne/anglune-dada/phurane-dada anglutne/anglune-dadurja/ phurane-dadurja

Masculine nouns in -i exchange this termination for -a or -eä in the plural, e.g. smitos/kovači=smith, plur. smitša/kovača/kovatša; molaris/moleäri   =wine-merchant, plur. malaria/molaja/molarija/moleäreä.

biknaši = seller, salesman, dealer, trader plur. biknača/biknačja;

The diphthong -eä has presumably developed from -i, the termination of the nominative, plus -a, the termination of the plural. After certain consonants the -i is dropped. The termination -a is possibly borrowed from Modern Greek. Note that nouns in –tori/-ari/-oris/-aris/-ši/-niko form the plural in -t9arfii, -torija,- –torija/oria/-orija/-ča/-nikja and so on. e.g. doktoris/doktori=doctor, physician plur. doktorija; pobednikotori/nerinaši = winner plur. pobednikja/nerinača; čhelitori = dancer ,player,plur. čhelitorija/ čhelitoreä.

One single masculine word in -i forms the nominative plural in -ja/-ureä/-urja/-urija, viz.čeri/tšeri/boliba=heaven, plur. čerija/tšerja/bolibe;

A few masculine nouns ending in a consonant take -a in the plural, e.g. tolmač/tolmatš/(prisariboskero) =interpreter, translator  plur. tolmača/tolmatša/previsardža; Also here the plural termination is possibly borrowed from Modern Greek.

Nouns in –iba, -ibe, -ipa,-ipe,-bos exchange this suffix for -bata in the plural, e.g. čuoriba/čoriba/čoripa=poverty,misery, plur. čuoribas/čoribas/ čuoribata/čoribata/čoripata. The plural suffix bata,-mata is of Modern Greek origin,

Not included in these groups are: (a) naj/karfin=nail, plur. naja/karfia/karfeä, (b) saster/sastri = iron, plur. sastera/sastra/sastura/ sastreä and (c) sastro= father-in-law of one’s son or daughter, plur. sastre/ sastroja.

Formation of the nominative plural of feminine substantives.

1. a. The feminine nouns in -i (see f 1) seem to have developed he nominative plural by the addition of the termination -a to the nominative singular, originally with retention of the -i, whereupon. (a) the combination -i-a has become -eä after certain consonants as r, n, l, t, b, d, m, v, e.g. bori = daughter-in-law, plur. borija/boreä; rakli (non-Gipsy) girl, plur. raklia/rakleä; and -iä after k, e.g. šuki/šuko (subst. adj.) =the dry one, plur. šukija/šukiä;  (b) the final consonant of the stem g has coalesced with -i- to

, and g-i-a,-gi has becom  dža, e.g. bangi= lame woman, plur. bandža; ( c) some nouns in -i, the stem of which termi11ates in certain  consonants as r, š, tš, ž, dž, č (sing. –dži plur. –dža)have dropped the -i- before -a, e.g. phurori=old woman, plur. phuroria/phurora; lačhi=(subst. adj.) the good one, plur. lačha/lačhe; Note the nouns in –i,-ij ( -ni), plur. -ia, e.g. khandi= lazy/smelly woman, plur. khandija.

b. The feminine nouns ending in a consonant seem to have developed the nominative plural by the addition of the termination -a to the nominative singular, whereby often, an -i- has been inserted between the stem of certain nouns and the plural termination. Thus, of feminine nouns in a consonant, one part forms the plural with and another part without indications of an original -i- preceding the plural -a, e.g. 1) phurt = bridge, plur. phurta/phurtja/phurtča/phurteä; makhi/mačhi = fly, plur. mačhia/ mačhja ( makhia); phuv=earth, plur.phuva/phuvja ( phuvia); 2) dukh =pain, plur. dukha; džor=strength, plur. džora., the -i- ‘has apparently been inserted on the analogy of the typical feminine declension’. The diphthongs -eä and –ia, -ija,-ja have developed from -i-a, -j-a,-i-j-a influenced by certain preceding consonants, thus -eä appears after example r, l, b, v, e.g. savaris/salavari =halter, bridle, reins rein, plur. sasvara/salavaria/savarija; mal/felda =field, plur. mala/felti; phumb/phum =pus, matter. plur. phumba/ phumbja; and     -ia, -ja after t, e.g. kakli/kat =scissors, plur. kakla/kata/katja; riat/reät= night, plur. riata/rata/ratja. the final consonants of the stem kh and n have coalesced with the following -i- to tš, č respectively i, and kh-i-a has become tša,ča,čha and n-i-a, -i-a, -i-n-j-a has become ja, e.g. makh =fly, plur. mačhia/mačhinja/mačha; koš/kuš =curse, swear plur. košja/koša/kuša; solax/solx/souv/sov= oath plur. solaxa/solaxja/souvja/sovja/souva;

Note asval/asvin/asvi =tear, plur. asvinja/asvija/asvina or asva/asvala, and patrin =leaf, plur. patrinja or patrina Feminine nouns in (consonantal) -i) form the plural in -a, e.g. čerheni/černi/čerxen= star, plur. čerhenia/černa/ čerhenija/čerxena . Note the contracted form of the plural of nouns e.g.               phabaj/phab= apple, plur. phabaja/phaba. The single noun droga/balani balaj, (plur.drogi/palania/balaja) differs through its weak accent from other nouns in a diphthong with –i as second component.

Feminine nouns in -i exchange this termination for -eä (-ja)or -a in the plural, e.g. kakavi/piri=cauldron, plur. kakavča/kakavia/kakavija/pira/pirija;

The diphthong –eä has presumably developed from -i, the termination of the nominative, plus -a, the termination of the plural. After certain consonants e.g. tš, dž,č,čh the -i is dropped. The termination -a is possibly borrowed from Modern Greek. Nouns in – or –a,-ja exchange these terminations

for -i in the plural, often in connection with change of the final consonant of the stem or of the nearest preceding vowel, e.g. lišco/lišca/liška = fox, plur. lisica; partos/parto/deo= part, plur. parta/deja; dorjav/more/mareä=sea, plur.dorjavja/meri/mori; mahuhi/mamuh = blackthorn, sloe, sloe-bush, plur. mahuha/mamuha ; The plural termination -i, of nouns and corresponds to the plural endings of feminine nouns: -e or -i. e.g. kereko/ kuros/roata/ rota=wheel, plur. kereki/kereka/kura/rotja/roati/ roatarja; phukni= pimple ,rash, plur. phukna/phuknija; herni/xer/xera= donkey, plur. hernija/ xernija; krambos/krabos/rakos =crayfish, plur.raka/rakoja krabourja; čerešna/trešna/čerko=cherry, plur. čerešne/trešňe/čerešni;

Not included in these groups is: marci Tuesday, plur. marcija

Användningen av kasus/cases The uses of the cases

The nominative

I Marita čerela buti.= Marita arbetar. ame dikhas but manuša adoj= vi ser många människor där.

Nominativ är i stället för den normala subjektiv som konkurrerar med verben.

džuvlija si-len-te/trebul te čeren but butti. jon na trebul te čereena aja but buti.Kvinnor behöver arbeta mycket De behöver inte arbeta så mycket

Det nesessive subjekt är i stället för nominativ i struktur form, där modalverbet konkurrerar med subjektiv.

jon drabaven dile lila. jon drabaren frendo/čudno lila. me na pačal mo jakha. upre leste pačal.dom läser dumma böcker. dom läser konstiga böcker tror inte mina ögon. han litar på honom
ame dikhas ajaso/ajso -sar te džene celo vrijamavi ser samma människor hela tiden
e lila trebul te publitizen butide e lila trebul te avela ande publitizel koni butböckerna skulle behöva publiceras böckerna skulle behöva publiceras
butvar ame dikhas O Allan aro/ando  kaljakiero/ kalieska.vi ser ofta Allan i kafeterian  

Nominativ används både i livlösa som levande direkta objekt samt i aktiva som passiva meningar. Emellertid är person pronomens objekt alltid oblique.

aro/ando Findlanditsko them  i Finland lila hin apo tafla böckerna är på bordet

1. The nominative is the case of: Nominativ är kasus med: (a) the subject, e.g. jekh frendo/frenti aulo/avilo ka l roma = en främling hade kommit till romerna; a stranger had come to the gypsies; jekh bipindžardo (gadžo) avelas kaj le roma = en främling kom till romerna, a stranger came to the Roma.

(b) the predicative noun -predikativ substantiv;  t.ex. me som jekh bari čhaj = jag är en stor (fullvuxen) flicka; kamavas/mangavas ti čhaj, te avela mieri bori = Jag skulle vilja att din dotter, blir min svärdotter.

2. Vokativ har ibland samma form som nominativet; t.ex. mar, tu, raklo! =strike, boy!; khatar/khata aves, xelado/xalado? Varifrån kommer du, soldat?; čhaj, hajde mande, na xav tut! = flicka kom (hit) till mej, jag äter inte (upp) dej.

3. Ackusativet av substantiv som betecknar livlösa objekt har samma form som nominativ; t.ex. lijan tume ado/kodo kamana? = har ni tagit den (där) klockan.; t.ex. činijan tume ado/kodo kamana? = köpte ni  den (där) klockan.

Ibland används samma form som nominativ också för, ackusativ av substantiv som betecknar animerade varelser;  t.ex.(jov) lela o džoro ta, džala/džalatar = han tar mulan, och går därifrån.

4. nominativ kan följa preposition; t.ex. (jov) dželo/dželotar pala pani = (han) har gått efter vatten.; dža pala o šereskiero/šeruno! = gå och hämta (egen. gå efter) chefen!; jov anela pala šereskiero/ šefo. =han hämtar chefen.

Dativ i -ke kan ersättas med prepositionen –ka plus –a form av substantivet som är samma som nominativet; t.ex. de! ni ka o raklo= ge! också/även till (icke-romska) pojken; de! ni le rakleske= ge! också/även till (icke-romska) pojken.

Ablativ i -tar kan ersättas med prepositionen khatar/khata plus en form av substantivet som är samma som nominativet;

t.ex. khatar e phuv avena le luludža (la phuvijatar avena le luludža) = blommorna växer (eg. kommer) ut ur jorden.


Vokativ är ett kasus som bland annat används i romani och i en del av de slaviska språken. Vokativ återfinns även i iriska, skotsk gäliska, latin, klassisk grekiska, arabiska och sanskrit.

Vokativen används i direkt adress, t.ex. Tino! Maria! ! čhavale! = pojkar!, Devla/Devel! = Gud!,vudara, phutarela/phutruvela/phutrela pes! = dörr, öppna dig själv! tu tasadola pe i čiriklija! = du kvävde, fågeln!                                                                                         (joj) tasavela i čiriklija! hon kväver fågeln!

The accusative

The accusative is the case of the direct object of the transitive, verbs, e.g. joj streffinelas/trafinelas jekh  manušes = she met a man;                                              joj arakhadijas/maladijas jekh manušes= she had met a man;                                         kames/manges lo? do you  want (to have) him?; šaj te des ma jekh rubla? = can you give me a ruble? šaj te dav tut duj! = I can give you two

Note that certain combinations of nouns with the verbs dav = ‘give’, lav =’take’ and čera =’make’, ‘do’ are treated as transitiveverbs; thus the personal object is in the accusative, e.g. jon dine penge dades armaja/prokleto == they have cursed their (own) father; jov solaxarelas/solxjarels peski daj= he cursed her own mother

jov dela la romnaija angali = he embraces the wife; angali lel = take so. in one’s arm; del angali= to embrace, to hug; čerel angali = to sit down cross-legged;

čerdean la ladžav= you put her to shame.; jov čerdijas la te ladžarelas/landžano = he makes her ashamed.

2. The dative can be identical in form with the accusative, especially if it is a weak-stressed personal pronoun, e.g. de ma,dada, pandž šela!= father, give me five hundred!; de le rakles vareso te xal! =give the boy (something) to eat!. Compare: de les o lila! give him the book! and de les leske! = give it to him!.

3. The accusative with the verb-forms som = to be’ in the present and imperfect and avav ‘to become’ in the future, subjunctive and conditional, corresponds in English to the nominative with verbs for ‘to have’, ‘to own’, which have no direct correspondence in the Gipsy language. (see verb ”to have”); also ačh/ačha used to be, become, (stay) etc.

The accusative is als o found with the forms hin/si and sas, with the conjunction te; this construction expresses compulsion, necessity, e.g. sas les te tradela are el thema = he was obliged to go abroad.

4. Note the expression dukha =pain, (pains, aches, hurts); dukhala= ache; dukhal=it hurt/hurts; o dukh lela man=the pain takes me; dukhala ma = it hurts me; dukhan ma el dand = my teeth are aching; dandesko-dukhiba/dandengeri-dukh/dandengero-dukhaviba = toothache; dukhala les o dži =he suddenly felt a pain in his stomach.(lit. heart); dukhal ma mo džilo/dži = my heart hurts (me),it hurts me; o per/dži dukhala les= he suddenly felt a pain in his stomach/hearts; po-jekhar/jekharestar/jekhvareste dukhala les aro/and o per =he suddenly felt a pain in his stomach.; pereski-dukh/džomrakeri-dukh/ = stomachache; hin/si ma dukha = i have pains; dukhal tut šero? = do you have a headache?; so dukhal tut? = what hurts you?, what hurts you?; dukhal ma mo šero =I have a headache, my head hurts (me), my head is aching;

The genitive The so-called genitive adjective denotes possession. (See the genitive adjective) The partitive genitive of other languages is expressed by partitive apposition or by the ablative, e.g. jekh staklos/glasos/ mol = a glass of wine; trin litri thud =three liters of milk; jekh kotor maro ta jekh staklos/glasos lovina = a piece of bread and a glass of beer; jekh amendar = one of us; line trin pa lendar =they took three of them;

The Dative

The dative is the case of the indirect object (a) with transitive verbs with the meanings ‘give’, ‘do’, ‘make’, ‘say’, ‘show’, ‘fetch’, ‘sell’, ‘buy’ etc., e.g. de e čhuri tie phraleske!= give the knife to your brother !; de les lake! = give it to her!; de les mange! = give it to me!; ma/na phen sa lenge!= do not tell them everything!; bičin okova/odova/kodova manušes ka mange! = sell that man to me !; jov rikerdijas/rigerdijas/ringerdijas o parno xalado kaj le časari =  he brought the white soldier to the emperor; jov andijas/anadijas/angerdijas o parno xelado/xalado kaj le časari/thagari = he/she/it brought the white soldier to the emperor;jov lidžaldijas/lidžadijas/lidžjaldijas/lidžiladijas o parno xelado kaj le thagari = he led the white soldier to the emperor;

(b) with intransitive verbs in constructions such as: na/čhi avela-dosta/ačhela-dosta lake =  it wasn’t enough for her;; soha tsi fal pe mang?; čekar/šoha na džala pe mange = it never succeeds for me; ke ni ado/ kada/ada sas te avela amenge = for even that was to happen to us.

2. The dative is the case of the person to whose advantage or disadvantage something is or happens, e.g. jov dživela le Devleske = he lives for God; mišto tuke?(hin tu mišto?) =are you well?; šil si tuke?( hin tu šil?) =are you cold?

3. The reflexive ethic dative is used frequently, e.g. čerdijas/čerdija pehke nevi cerha/ šatra ta rodela pala šatrako-štanga//cerhaki-stakos =he has made himself a new tent and was looking for tent poles; mekh amenge te čhelas! = let us dance!; le tuke jekh  romni! = take to yourself a wife!. Note the expression: pariker tuke!= thank you!

4. The dative with the verb-forms som =’to be’ in the present and imperfeet and avav = ‘to become’ in the future, subjunctive and conditional sometimes corres-ponds in English to the nominative with the verbs ‘to have’, ‘to own’, which have no direct correspondence in the Gipsy language. The dative is also found with the forms hin/hi/si and sas together with an infinitive with te, expressing compulsion, necessity.

5. Note (Of. kamlo, džungalo/gadno, ladžav/landžav, šil) the constructions of the type kamla mange/(mangava) = I like, I am fond of; kuči mange/(muri kuči)!= my dear!; gudlo/guglo tut!= sweet you

džungalo/gadno/strašno mange= I find it awful, I think it is awful; čhandvalo/čandvalo/čhaglo (si) mange = it disgust me; khandino/čermalo/ černo(si) mange = it disgust me;

ladžav/landžav (si) mange =I am ashamed; me landžavav/ladžavav=I am ashamed; jov hin/si ladžano/ladžavno/ladžardo/ladžamno = he is ashamed, he’s ashamed; ladžava mange,(ladžav-pe) = I am ashamed; ladžal pes =to be ashamed, be ashamed;

šil (si) mange =I am cold.;

6. The dative with the flexionless verbal expression musaj/trebul= ‘it is necessary ‘expresses necessity, e.g. musaj/trebul mange te dža =I have to go; musaj tuke te čineha/činaveha jekn nevi stadi  =you must buy yourself a new cap.

7. Note the dative of the pronoun with the verb džav ‘go’, e.g. džav mange(džavtar) =I go my way; dža tuke! = go away!

8. Note the expressions of time: račasa/račsake/račenca=at night; diveseske/divesa/divesesa/divesese = in the day, divesa by day.

Prepositioner betyder ungefär framför position. Prepositioner står framför ord som uttrycker en plats eller rättare sagt position. Prepositioner står framför substantivSubstantiven står då i bestämd form och utgör adverbial i satsen.


The prepositional is often used after prepositions. Pronouns after prepositions are always in the prepositional. Nouns after prepositions are either in the nominative or the prepositional ”Prepositionen prepositionell används ofta efter prepositioner. Pronomen efter preposition/prepositioner är eller finns alltid i prepositionell/prepositionen. Substantiv efter preposition/prepositioner finns antingen i nominativ eller preposition/prepositional/ prepositionell”; t.ex.  (jov) džalas pala paneste = han gick för att hämta vatten;  (soske?)anda soste? =varför ?; angla mande =framför mig;  paša tute = bredvid dig; (jov) čerela preperate/čhudela pe korate = han gör en kullerbytta;  (jone) bičhadine/tradine man pala kašt = de/dom skickade mig att hämta ved; ma/na beš pe phuv! = sitt inte på marken!

2. “The prepositional, without preposition, is used instead of the locative and expresses place in answer to the questions ‘where?’, ‘whither!”; Prepositional/ Prepositionen, utan preposition, används istället för lokativ och uttrycker plats som svar på frågorna ‘var?’, ”vart!”, t.ex. ape rigate/agorate = till (vid) sidan; beš thaneste! = stanna på plats!;  (jov) bandžardjola/bandžardija el kašesko opruno/toppa= han böjde ner trädets topp; (jov) phandelas/phangjol/ phanglijal le gurumnijengo poria pori-ate = han band kornas svans i svansen;  (jov) dželo (kaj) late = han gick till henne;  (joj) na hin baxtaljarel kaj amende = hon är inte välkommen till oss;te sarako riat ka-avava tute = jag kommer till dig i morgon kväll;(jov) dželo/dželotar pesko dadeste = han gick till sin pappa.

3. “The prepositional in certain cases denotes possession. It can be found with the verbs som ‘to be’ in the present and imperfect and avav”;Prepositionen betecknar i vissa fall innehav. Det kan finnas med i och vid verben som =’att vara’, (i presens och imperfekt) och (te) avav = att ”bli”, i futurum, konjunktiv och konditional; Uttrycken återges vanligtvis på engelska med ‘har’, ‘hade’ etc. plus subject, t.ex. sas leste jekh kalo čhor = han hade ett svart skägg; romniate sas la but somnakune/sonakune lo(u)ve = Den romska kvinnan hade på sig många guldmynt (eg. hade många guldmynt på sig).

The verb can be implied: t.ex. čačes! sas leste morčuno-škornja/škorna ta jekh somnakuno/sonakuno kamana = ärligt/verkligen! han hade läderstövlar (eg. riktiga stövlar) och en guldklocka.; čačes! sas late morčuno-tiexa/tirax ta somnakune/sonakune kanenge-anglos/čenija= ärligt/verkligen! hon hade läderskor och guldörhänge.

The instrumental

l. The instrumental expresses ‘together with’, ‘in the company of’Instrumentet uttrycker ‘tillsammans med’, ‘i sällskap med‘,  t.ex. ačh! Develesa! = adjö! (eg. förblir hos Gud!); av! mansa!/mantsa!=kom med mig!; dža te rakereha lesa! = gå och tala till honom!; dža te del lafi lesa! =gå och tala till honom!; jov mardarelas/maradolas/mardija pe peski/pehki phejasa = han kämpade med sin (egen) syster;

2. ”The means, the instrument, are indicated with the instrumental”, Det menas att, hjälpmedlen(the instrument) är angivet(indicated) med bidragande (instrumental); t.ex.(jov) lelas/lija o jagalo-tatardo sastri le nange vastensa = han tog det glödande (egn. eld varma!); strykjärnet/järnet med sina (bara) händer; (joj) mardarelas/maradolas/mardija les le čukniasa/čukniesa = hon slog honom med piskan; joj dela les čukjaha/čukniasa = hon slog honom med piskan.

Note the expressions with: čerava : (I čirikli) čerela phakenca = (fågeln) flaxar med vingarna; (I čirikli) phakavela phakenca/phakentsa= (fågeln) flaxar med vingarna; (I čirikli) marel le phakenca= (fågeln) flaxar med vingarna (joj) čerela le jakhenca/jakhentsa = hon blinkar med ögonen.

3. The material can be indicated with the instrumental); t.ex.

(me) phurdav sumnakasa = (jag) förgyller (med guld); (me) somnakunarav= (jag) förgyller (med guld); (me) so(m)nakutava= (jag) förgyller (med guld); o čher (hin) phusarano/phusarado le phusensa/phusentsa =huset är halmtäckt; huset (är) halmtäckt (med halm).

4. The instrumental can express the space within which a movement takes place;

t.ex. (jov) džal le dromesa = (han) går han bredvid/längs vägen; (jov) džal le dromeske = (han) går han bredvid/längs vägen; (jov) džal le dromeste = (han) går han bredvid/längs vägen; (jov) džal le dromeja =(han) går han bredvid/längs vägen; (joj) prastelas perdal le vešesa =(hon) sprang genom skogen;  (joj) našelas/naštol/našlitar perdal le vešesa =(hon) sprang genom skogen;  (joj) nakhelas/nakhajol le vešesa = (hon) sprang genom skogen;  (jon) džan/vandruven perdal la bolibasa/themijasa = de vandrar världen över.

5. The instrumental can express the time during which an action or an occurrence takes place: t.ex. divesa ta riatiasa (jov) stavelas = dag och natt vandrade han.

6. The instrumental is used in descriptive expressions such as:

(a) phutrude/phuterde mosa = med öppen mun; nange vastensa/vastentsaa = med bara händer; (b) jov avelas lošibosa ta lačhibosa = han kom med glädje och med godhet; (jov) avelas rouvibosa late= (han) kom gråtande till henne.

7. That which someone or something is ‘provided with’, ‘equipped with’, ‘filled with’ etc. is expressed with the instrumental: t.ex. dikh kadaj džuvli, ti vodros hin pherdo džuvejansa ta ni tu hin džuvalo/džuvano ! titta här, kvinna, din säng är full av löss och även du är full av löss !; jekh khoro/staklos tintasa = en flaska med bläck;

8. Alter the particle bi- ‘without’ used as a preposition the personal pronoun can be in the instrumental; e.g. bi-mansa = utan mig, bi-tusa =utan dig, bi-lesa =utan honom, bi-pesa = utan mig, bi-pesa = utan sig själv.

9. With for instance; čerava = göra, the instrumental denotes the person or thing concerned:t.ex. so čeras lesa? vad ska vi göra med honom?; so čerav lensa? vad ska jag göra med dom?; so čeres kodole šošojesa/xoxiesa? = vad ska du göra med haren?