Some Notes on Swedish Kale Romani

Ännu ej redigerat – på engelska

Derivation of suffixes and prefixes

mask -uno fem -uni könlös -une
  -utno   -utni   -utne
  -atno   -atni   -atne
  -kano   -kani   -kane
  -ako   -aki   -ake
  -jako   -jaki   -jake
  -iako   -iaki   -iake
  -ijako   -ijaki   -ijake
  -arno   -arni   -arne
  -ano   -ani   -ane
  -ikano   -ikani   -ikane
  -kano   -kani   -kane
  -alo   -ali   -ale
  -valo   -vali   -vale
  -esko   -eski   -eske
  -engo   -engi   -enge
  -dino   -dini   -dile
  -alo   -ali   -ale
  -do   -di   -de
  -lo   -li   -le


-bi, -či, -čhi, -na, -ni, -pra, -po,-apo,-do,-di, -sa,

A. Suffixes

With the use of some suffixes, one may create: nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, numerals.


The suffixes no (for masculine noun) and ni (for feminine nouns)            

  1. from verbs:

from the verb arakhav ”to find, guard, take care+ suffix no >arakh-no “care taker, bodyguard, finder

from the verb (a)starav ”to catch“ + suffix no > (as)tar-no; with feminine suffixe ni > (a)starni trap, something that catches

from the verb( sikhavel v tr/itr-ď-/-d- 1. show, display 2. Teach), sikhavav  “to point to” + suffix no > sikhav-no; with feminine suffix -ni > sikav-ni  “guide, teacher“.

b) from nouns:

The ni suffix is used to get feminine nouns. For instance:

from the masculine noun  grast “horse“ + ni >grast-ni  “mare“

from the masculine noun manuš “man“ + ni > manuš-ni “woman“

from the masculine noun rom “Rom“ + ni >rom-ni “Roma woman“

from the masculine noun raj  “mister, sir, lord,king“ + ni ra-ni  “lady, mistress, madam“ etc

The suffix (-iba/-ipa), ibe(n),   ipe(n)  forms the abstract nouns. With the help of the  suffixipen , ipe(n), pen , pe(n),iba, -iba, -iben  from nouns, adjectives and verbs:

a) from nouns:

from the masculine noun amal ”friend” + suffix ipe(n) > amal-ipe(n), mal-iba  ”friendship”;

from the masculine noun phral ”brother” +suffix ipe(n) phral-ipe(n), -phral-iba  ”brotherhood”

            b) from adjectives:

from the adjective dil/o(i,e,e) ”crazy, mad, stupid”+suffix ipe(n) >dilipe(n), dil-iba  ”madness, stupidity”

from the adjective šukar ”beautiful”+suffix ipe(n) > šukaripe(n),  šukar-iba ”beauty”

from the adj pharo “ heavy, difficult, pregnant”  and adv mod phare “ with difficulty, hardly , sadly, miserably, badly (feel) ,heavly”+ suf. ‐ipephar-ipe “weight,pregnancy, difficulty, sorrow   ”

             c) from verbs:

from the verb kamav ”to want, to wish, to love” + suf. ipen kam-ipen, kam-iba  ”wish, love”.

            from the verb šar-av  “praise, extol, laud, admire, exaggerate ”+suffix ‐iben) > šariben “praise, boasting,

            promotion, advertisement, achievement”

            from the ačh-av “ stay, be (in a place), linger, remain, be left ,become, come into being, emerge, begin,

            start , continue, last, linger , occur, arise , stand still, stand (in a place), ”+suffix ‐iben) > ačh-iben            

            “happening, occasion, stay, action , standpoint

             from the v tr  arakh-av “  find , watch over sth., guard, protect ,obtain, procure , detect ”+suffix ‐iben) >

             arakh-iben n m-a/-as- “protection, shelter, discovery, invention,  contraception

            from the v tr/itr asav-a, sava “enjoy oneself, make laugh ”+suffix iben) > asav-iben “ smile”

            from the v tr  bikin-av,bikn-av,biken-av  “ sell,deal, trade ”+suffix iben) >   biken-iben, bikn-ipen,bikn-iba

            selling,sale(s), sale, traffic, trade, marketing, marketin ”

            from the verb lačhare-av  “improve, correct, adjust, correct, arrange, embrace” + suf. ipe lačhar-ipe   

            “improvement,mending, correcting, correction, arrangement , coitus”

from the n m pl   čhave  “Romani sons, children, (Romani) boys”  + suf. ipe > čhavoripe, čhavoripen “childhood”

The Suffix lin.

            a) from nouns:

from the noun ambrol ”pear”+ suffix lin > feminin noun ambrol-in  ”pear tree”

from noun  phabaj ”apple” +suffix lin > feminin  noun phabajl-in ”apple tree”

The nouns can also be formed from some adjectives.


Adjectives can be formed by adding to the word the following suffixes:

The Suffix un/o (i,e),utn/o (i,e). The adjectives formed by means of this suffix come from:

a) nouns:

from the noun kašt ”wood” + suffux un/o (i,e), utn/o(i,e) > adjective kašt-un/o(i,e) ”wooden, made out of wood”

from the noun čher ”house” + suffix un/o (i,e),utn/o(i,e) > adjective  čherut- n/o(i,e) ”domestic, pertaining to the household”

            a) adjectives:

from adjective čač/o(i,e,e) ”right, just, true” + suffix un/o (i,e),utn/o(i,e) > adjective čač-utn/o (i,e) ”truthful, just”

             c) adverbs:

            from the adverb akana ”now” + suffix un/o (i,e),utn/o (i,e) > adjective akan-utn/o(i,e,e) ”contemporary, from


from the adverb upre ”up”+ suffix un/o (i,e),utn/o(,i,e) > adjektive upr-utn/o (i,e) ”superior”

            d) prepositions:

from the preposition anglal ”before, in front of” + suffixun/o (i,e), un/o (i,e),utn/o (i,e) > adjective angl-utn/o (i,e) ”anterior, preceeding”

from the preposition palal ”after, behind” + suffix un/o (i,e),utn/o(i,e) > adjective pal-utn/o(i,e) ”posterior, following”etc           

The Suffix (v)al/o (i,e). Adjectives of this type are formed:

             from nouns:

from the  masculine noun čhor ”beard” + suffix (v)al/o(i,e) > adjective čhor-val/o (i,e) ”person who has a beard”

from the masculine noun rat ”blood” + suffix (v)al/o(i,e) > adjective rat-val/o(i,e,e) ”bloody”

The Suffix al/o (i,e). Adjectives of this type are formed:

from nouns:

from the  masculine noun beng ” devil, the Evil One, bad, mischievous, naught  ” + suffix ‐al/o(‐i,‐e) > adjective beng-al/o (‐i,‐e) “devilish, diabolic, evil , awful , violent , bad, wild  etc”

The Suffix ikan/o (i,e). Adjectives can be formed from:

            a) nouns:

from the masculine noun murš ”man” + suffix ikan/o(i,e) > adjective murš-ikan/o (i,e) ”manly”

from the feminin noun džuvli ”woman” + suffix ikan/o(i,e) > adjective džuvl-ikan/o(i,e) ”womanly”

from the masculine noun phral ”brother” + suffix ikan/o(i,e) > adjective phral-ikan/o(i,e) ”brotherly”

            b) adjectives:

from adjective dilo ”crazy, mad, stupid” + suffixikan/o (i,e) > adjective dil-ikan/o(i,e) ”crazy, foolish”

The Suffixes  esk/o (i, e, e) / eng/o (i, e) / ak/o (i, e) / ang/o (i, e, e) are forms for the Genitive of the nouns.

from the masculine noun dad ”father” +suffix esk/o (i, e) > adjective dad-esk/o(i,e) ” the father’s” (Gen.)

from masculine noun dada ”father’s”+ suffix eng/o (i, e) > adjective  dad-eng/o (i,e) ”the father’s” (Gen);

from the feminin noun daj ”mother”+suffix ak/o (i, e) > adjective daj-ak/o(i,e) ”the mother`s” (Gen);

The Participial Suffixes d/o (i, e)

from the verb  lačharla, lačharav ”to fix, to repair, serve (on the table),  improve, correct ” > lačhar-d/o (i, e) ”fixed, repaired”


The Suffix es.

from the adjective roman/o (i,e) ”rom” + suffix es roman-es ”in a roma way”

from the adjective čač/o(i,e,es) ”right, just” + suffix es > čač-es ”truthfully”

The Suffix al.  

from the masculine noun maškar ”middle” + suffix al  >  adj. maškar-al ”from the middle”

from the adverb avri ”outside” + suf. al > adverbs avr-j-al ”from the outside”


The Suffix arjar  is one of the most productive romani suffixes and added to nouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs,verbs, it can form verbs.

            a) from nouns:

from the feminin noun mel ”dirt” +suffix jar >  verb mel-jarel-a ” to get something dirty”

from the feminin noun loš ”joy”+suffix ar > verb loš-arel-a  ”to make somebody happy”

            b) from adjectives:

from the adjective bar/o(i,e,e) ”big”+suffix jar > verb bar-jarel-a ”to grow, to cultivate, to develop”

from the adjective dil/o(i,e,e) ”crazy, stupid” + suffix jar > verb dil-jarel –a ”to drive somebody crazy”

from the adjective šukar ”beautiful”+ suffix jar > verb šuk-ar-jarel-a ”to beautify, to make beautiful”

            c) from adverbs:

from the adverbs dur ”far” + suffix -jarverb dur-jarel-a  ”to run from, to put some distance between”

            d) from  verbs:

            from the verb sikljola, sikjola, sikljova ”to study”+ suffix jar >  verb  sik-l-jarel-a, sik-jarel-a   ” to teach”

B. Prefixes

The Prefix  bi can form:

            a) nouns:

prefix bi‐ + feminin noun baxt ”good luck, chance” > feminin noun bi-baxt ”bad luck”

  1. adjectives :

prefix bi +adjective londo ”salty” > adjective  bi-londo ”with no salt”

  1. verbs:

prefix bi‐ + verb starela ”to catch, to grab, to remember” > verb bi-star-el-a  ”to drop, to forget”

prefix bi  + verb činela ”to buy”> verb bik-in-el-a ”to not sell, to not buy”

The grammatical cases and Romani verbs

An important part of Romani language are the cases. Many authors have written about the case system of Romani. The case system in Romani can be presented in two ways: with postpositions (kher-es-tar > house-from) or with prepositions (aredar/andar o čher > from the house). There are differences in the case endings for masculine and feminine nouns, plural and singular, as well as for animate and inanimate nouns. However, very little is known and there is no research and publications about the verbs in relation to the Romani case system. Here I will present examples about some verbs from Romani language and how they go along with different cases in Romani:

1)  te dža, džal (to go)


1) O rom džala kaštenge

the man go-3sg wood-for (The man goes for wood’ )

2) O rom džala apo drom

the man go(walk)-3sg on road ( ‘The man walks on the road’)

3) O rom džala apo grast

the man go-3sg after horse (The man follows the horse’)


O  gad džala leske šukar

the shirt go-3sg him nice ( The shirt suits him well’)


Me džava tusa aro/ando foro

I go-1sg  you-with in-the town (‘I am coming with you to the town’)


1) I romni džala aro/ando čher

the woman go-3sg into house (‘The woman goes into the house’)

 2) Me džava  paš tute

I go-1sg  to you ( ‘I am coming to you’ )

2)te  avel (to come)


O manuš avela apo drom

the man come-3sg on-the  road ( ‘The man comes on the road’)


O  khabe  avela leske ṧukar

the food come-3sg him-to nice ( ‘He likes the food’)


1) O  čhavo  avela  aredar/andar o čher

the boy come-3sg from the house ( ‘The boy comes from the house’)

2) O čhavo avela čherestar

the boy come-3sg house-from ( ‘The boy comes from the house’)


avava tusa

come-1sg you-with ( ‘I am coming with you’)

džava tusa

‘I go with you’


Me avava paš tute

I come-1sg to you  ( I come close to you)

1.Avav tute     2. Avava kaj tuke

‘I am coming to you’

3)te tradel/bičhavel (to send)


I romni bičhavela  e čhaves ako kurko

the woman send-3sg the child to market (‘The woman sends the child to the market’)


Trade/Bičha  mange jekh lil

send-PT-3pl me-to one book (‘They sent me a book’)


Bičhadan les aredar/andar o gav

send-PT-3pl him from the village (‘They sent him from the village’)


Tradas/Bičhadas lensa louve

send-PT-3sg them-with money

Tradas/Bičhadas louve lensa

He sent money with them’


Bičhadan mande e čhave

send-PT-3pl me-to the child(boy)

‘They had sent me the child(boy)’

4) te avel palpale (to come back)


Me avava palpale apo drom

I come back from road (‘I come back from my trip’)


Me avava palpale tumendar

I come back you-pl-from (‘I come back from your place’)


Me avava palpale lasa

I come back her-with (‘I come back with her’)


Me  avava palpale paš tute

I come back with you ( I come back close with you)

Avav palpale kaj tuke

‘I come back to you’

5) te nikjol/nikljol (to get out/to get on)


1. džala avri  pe les jekh čiri, 2. ari džala pe les jekh čiri, 3.nikljol/nikljol pe les jekh čiri

go out on him one ant

i čiri kralinela/cirdela pes apo les, 2. i čiri kralinela/cirdela pes apo leske

‘An ant crawling on him’


džal avri  leske jakha, nikjon/nikljon leske jakha

go out his eyes

šajte/neka les avela kuoros/koros

‘May he becomes blind’


1)  dźava  avri andar  o čher, 2.nikjav/nikljav arodar/andar  o čher

go out-1 sg from the house

‘I leave the house’

1) džava avri čherestar, 2. nikjav/nikljav  čherestar

go-out -1sg house-from

I leave home/the house’


1.O  čhavo džala lasa ako bijav, 2. O  čhavo nikjola/nikljola lasa ako bijav

 the boy go-out 3sg her-with to wedding

 ‘the boy goes to the wedding with her’


1.O  rom džal upre čhereste, 2.O  rom nikjol/nikljol upre čhereste

the  man go out-3sg  on house-the

‘The man climbs on the houses wall’

6) te gindila/del pes godi (to think)


1. Me dav man godi pe leste, 2. lav pe godi pe leste, 3. gindisarav pe leste

I think about him

1.del pes godi pe late, 2 jov del pe godi pa late

he thinks of her

7) te mangela (to ask, beg, request, require, desire 2. order, give an order)


1.Kamav e čhaja, 2.Mangav  e  čhaja

love-1sg the girl

‘I love the girl’

8) te dikhel (to see)


1) Dikhav  o  čher

see-1sg the  house (‘I see the house’)

 2) Dikhav   e  dades

see-1sg the father ( ‘I see the father’)


1) Dikhava  e čherestar  dži  ki  len

 see-1sg the house-from till the river (  ‘I can see from the house till the river’)                     

2) Dikhava  andar  o  čher  dži  ki  len

 see-1sg  from  the  house  till the river (‘I can see from the house till the river’)


Dikhava tusa o filmo,  manga/kama te dikhava o filmo tusa

 see/Watch1-sg you-with thefilm ( ‘I watch the film with you’)


Dikhava upre leste šukar gad

see-1 sg on him nice shirt (‘He has a nice shirt on’)

9) te vakerel (to say/ to talk)


Me rakerava/phenava  tuke kaj ame džas ando foro

I tell-1sg you that we go-1pl  to-the city (‘I tell you that we go to the city’)


Rakerdom aredar/andar  o lil

speak-PT1sg about the book  (‘I spoke about the book’)


Rakerdom lensa

speak-PT1sg   them-with (‘I spoke with them’)


Rakerdom ko radio

speak-PT1sg   in the radio (‘I did spoke on radio’)

10)1. te džiftila pes 2. te dženimila pe 3. te dženimbila pes 4. prandel pes (to get married)


Me  džiftijom/dženimjom lasa

I marry-PT1sg her-with

‘I married her, I have got married with her’

12) te džiftilavav  2. te dženimilavav 3. te dženimbilavav 4.prandavav (make s.o. to get married)


Me džiftavava/dženimavav/bijavava les jekhe čhajasa

I marry-1sg him one girl-with (‘I married him to a girl’)


Me džiftavava/dženimavav/bijavava lesa mire čhaja

I marry-1sg him-with my daughter (‘I made him to marry my daughter’)

12) te bijanel, te bijandila (to give a birth)


1.I krajisa/ kralica bijandili e krajliseske / krajiseske/ kraliseske  jekhe 

2. I kralica bijandili e krajiseske  jekhe 

3.I kralica bijandili e kraliseske  jekhe 

the queen gave birth the king-DAT one-to   

1.sumnakune rakles 2. sonakunes raklo

golden boy

1.I krajisa/ kralica bijandili e krajliseske / krajiseske/ kraliseske  jekhe sumnakune rakles/sonakuno raklo

2. I kralica bijandili e kraliseske  jekhe sumnakune rakles

The queen gave a birth to a golden boy for for the king’

ACC    bijanula, bijanuvela,bijanela,bijandila gave birth    phari/khabni  pregnant

1.I daj bijandili jekhe čhaves 2.I daj bijandila jekhe čhaves 3.I daj bijanel jekhe čhaves 4.I daj bijanela jekhe čhaves

the mother gave birth one-to boy

‘The mother gave birth to a boy’


1.i phari/khabni džuvli bijanela/bijandila aro/ando lengo čher, 2. i phari/khabni džuvel bijandila aro/ando lengo čher

3. i phari/khabni džuvli bijandili aro/ando lengo čher,

the pregnant woman gave birth in their house

‘The pregnant woman gave a birth in their house’

1. i phari/khabni džuvli bijanela/bijandila aro/ando peski čher, 2. i phari/khabni džuvli bijandili aro/ando peski čher,

the pregnant woman gave birth in her own house

1. i phari/khabni džuvli bijanela/bijandila aro/ando lako  čher, 2. i phari/khabni džuvli bijandili aro/ando lako čher,

the pregnant woman gave birth in her house

1. i phari/khabni džuvli bijanela/bijandila aro/ando lesko  čher, 2. i phari/khabni džuvli bijandili aro/ando lesko čher,

the pregnant woman gave birth in his house

1.i phari/khabni džuvli bijanvelas/bijandilas aro/ando peski čher 2. i phari/khabni džuvli bijandilas aro/ando peski čher,

‘”The pregnant woman was born in her own house”

13) te mera, te merel (to die )


Jov merel lake

he die-3sg her-for ( ‘He dies for her’)

Joi merel leske

she die-3sg him-for (‘she dies for him’)

Jov merel lenge

he die-3sg them-for (‘He dies for them’)


Tu meres  apo drom

you die-2sg on-the  road (‘You die on the road’)

joi merel  apo drom

shedie-2sg on-the  road (‘She die on the road’)

ame meras  apo drom

we die-2sg on-the  road (‘We die on the road’)


Jon mule lensa aro/ando foro

they die-3plPT them-with in-the city (‘They died together with them in the city’)


1)  joj muli xoljatar, 2. joi muli xolijatar, 3. joi muli rušatar, joi merela xoljatar,/rušatar

she died anger-from

‘She died of anger’

1)  joj  muli aredar/andar i xoli 2. 2. Joi merela aredar/andar i ruš 3. Joi merela/merla aredar/andar i xoli/ruš

she died from the anger

‘She died of anger’


1.jov mulo aro/and-o gav  2. Jov mulas aro/ando gav

he die-3sgPT in-the village

‘He died in the village’

The examples above show clearly that there are certain verbs which go or do not with certain cases. The same verb used in different cases can have different meanings and the same phenomenon is observed in Hindi as well Conclusions

As it is shown in the paper, Romani still preserves structures typical for Hindi and other Indo-Arian languages. The verbs used by some cases are also similar to Hindi, or dialects of Hindi, which show that the deep structure of Romani comes from Indian languages, or dialects of Hindi.